The Role of Buccal Epithelial Cells Properties to Adhesion of Candida albicans and Influence on It of Regulatory Cytokines During Infectious Process in Patients with Candidiasis of the Mucosa of the Upper Digestive Tract
The role of buccal epithelial cells in candidiasis development and the interrelation with peculiarities of cytokine balance in patients with candidiasis of the upper digestive tract continues to be studied today. The aim of the investigation. To study levels of cytokines interleukin‑1β (IL‑1β), IL‑4, IL‑6, IL‑8 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in gastroenterological patients with candidiasis of the upper digestive tract and to compare obtained data with indices of buccal epithelial cells ability to the adhesion of reference strain of Candida albicans depending on the depth of the damage of the mucosa. Materials and methods. The study was done on buccal epithelial cells from 66 patients, who were divided into three groups according to the results of microbiological investigation of the scrape from the tongue and biopsy materials of the esophagus and the stomach. The first group (1) — 31 patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis and superficial growth of fungi in biopsy materials, of them 1А subgroup — 8 people with superficial growth, the second group (2) — 25 patients with fungi invasion in the mucos, the third group (3) — 10 individuals without oropharyngeal candidiasis and without the growth of fungi. Results. It was demonstrated that the average index of adhesion of buccal epithelial cells was 1.3 and 1.6 higher in group 2 compared with subgroup 1 and 1A (р < 0.05 and р < 0.05 correspondingly). Examined patients had a significantly decreased level of IL‑4 (р < 0.001), on the background of which in groups 1 and 2 there was a significant increase of IL‑8 level (р < 0.01 and р < 0.001), and in group 1 — of IL‑1β (р < 0.05). Patients of the 1А subgroup had a significantly higher level of IL‑6 and TNF-α as compared to group 2 (р < 0.05 and р < 0.05 respectively). The increase of buccal epithelial cells ability to adhesion of Candida albicans has the direct correlation with the level of IL‑8 and inverse one — with the level of IL‑4, and depending on the depth of mucosal lesions has a multidirectional relationship with the level of IL‑6 and TNF-α. Conclusions. The nature of the infectious process depends on the ability of buccal epithelial cells of patients to the adhesion of Candida albicans, which is associated with peculiarities of the cytokine status of patients.
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