Main Article Content
Background. Until now, the issue of the correlation between the cytokine balance and the progression of structural changes in the gastric mucosa remain completely uncertain. At the same time, the determination of the role of cytokine balance as a component of gastric carcinogenesis will make it possible to substantiate new approaches to managing patients with atrophic gastritis. The purpose was to assess the level of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at the stages of progression of structural changes in the gastric mucosa of patients with atrophic gastritis. Materials and methods. The study included 79 individuals with atrophic gastritis who underwent narrow band imaging endoscopic examination. The patients were divided into groups taking into account the revealed structural changes in the gastric mucosa: group I — 7 people with gastric mucosal atrophy without intestinal metaplasia (IM); group II — 16 individuals with gastric mucosal atrophy with IM limited by the antrum; group III — 45 people with diffuse IM against the background of gastric mucosal atrophy; group IV — 10 individuals with gastric mucosal dysplasia. In all patients, we assessed the level of interleukins (IL-8, IL-10, IL-18), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), VEGF. Results. In patients of group IV, the concentration of IL-8 in the blood serum was 18.6 (11.3; 23.9) pg/ml that was significantly higher than in group I (by 5.0 times, p < 0.05), group II (by 3.6 times, p < 0.05) and group III (by 3.4 times, p < 0.05). According to the results of the Kruskal-Wallis test, the probability of a difference in the IL-8 level between the groups was 0.0260. The level of VEGF in the blood serum of patients with gastric mucosal dysplasia was significantly increased compared to that in people with gastric mucosal atrophy without IM (by 1.8 times, p < 0.05) and those with gastric mucosal atrophy with IM (by 1.7 times, p < 0.05). Changes in the cytokine balance towards proinflammatory cytokines were most pronounced in patients of groups III and IV; according to the results of the Kruskal-Wallis test, the probability of a difference in the IL-8/IL-10 ratio between the groups was 0.0207. Conclusions. With the progression of structural changes in the gastric mucosa of patients with atrophic gastritis, an increase in the level of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-18 and TNF-α) in the blood serum does not induce the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10). According to the results of the ROC analysis, the diagnostic criteria for the formation of the risk group for detecting dysplastic changes in the gastric mucosa are VEGF level of more than 341.4 mU/ml (sensitivity — 90.0 %, specificity — 77.2 %) and the level of IL-8 above 14.4 pg/ml (sensitivity — 80.0 %, specificity — 78.3 %).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
- The rights to the article are deemed transferred by the authors to the edition (the publisher) since the moment of the publication of the article in the printed or electronic version of journal.
Lahner E, Zagari RM, Zullo A, et al. Chronic atrophic gastritis: Natural history, diagnosis and therapeutic management. A position paper by the Italian Society of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Digestive Endoscopists (AIGO), the Italian Society of Digestive Endoscopy (SIED), the Italian Society of Gastroenterology (SIGE), and the Italian Society of Internal Medicine (SIMI). Dig Liver Dis. 2019 Dec;51(12):1621-1632. doi:10.1016/j.dld.2019.09.016.
Pimentel-Nunes P, Libânio D, Marcos-Pinto R, et al. Management of epithelial precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS II): European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter and Microbiota Study Group (EHMSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED) guideline update 2019. Endoscopy. 2019 Apr;51(4):365-388. doi:10.1055/a-0859-1883.
Bang CS, Lee JJ, Baik GH. Diagnostic performance of serum pepsinogen assay for the prediction of atrophic gastritis and gastric neoplasms: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Jan;98(4):e14240. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000014240.
Kutluana U, Kilciler AG, Mizrak S, Dilli U. Can neopterin be a useful immune biomarker for differentiating gastric intestinal metaplasia and gastric atrophy from non-atrophic non-metaplastic chronic gastritis? Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 May;42(5):289-295. doi:10.1016/j.gastrohep.2019.01.005.
Wiwanitkit V. Genetic polymorphisms in TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR10 of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis in Thai population. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2019 Mar;28(2):142-143. doi:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000434.
Navegantes KC, de Souza Gomes R, Pereira PAT, Czaikoski PG, Azevedo CHM, Monteiro MC. Immune modulation of some autoimmune diseases: the critical role of macrophages and neutrophils in the innate and adaptive immunity. J Transl Med. 2017 Feb 15;15(1):36. doi:10.1186/s12967-017-1141-8.
Dutta N, Lillehoj PB, Estrela P, Dutta G. Electrochemical Biosensors for Cytokine Profiling: Recent Advancements and Possibilities in the Near Future. Biosensors (Basel). 2021 Mar 23;11(3):94. doi:10.3390/bios11030094.
Jndoyan ZT, Bablumyan AY, Ginosyan KV, Shekoyan SV. Correlations between indicators of interleukin-10 and interleukin-6 in patients with periodic disease. Ter Arkh. 2018 Apr 19;90(3):38-41. doi:10.26442/terarkh201890338-41.
Ashizawa T, Okada R, Suzuki Y, et al. Clinical significance of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the spread of gastric cancer: role of IL-6 as a prognostic factor. Gastric Cancer. 2005;8(2):124-131. doi:10.1007/s10120-005-0315-x.
Liu D, He Q, Liu C. Correlations among Helicobacter pylori infection and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Apr;25(4):795-799. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.06168.x.
Aksoy EK, Akpınar MY, Doğan Ö, et al. Clinical Significance of Serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, and Progranulin Levels in Patients with Gastric Cancer and Gastric Precancerous Lesions. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2019 Sep;50(3):537-542. doi:10.1007/s12029-019-00251-8.
Pasiieshvili TM. The evaluation of specific changes and diagnostic informativeness of the cytokine profile in young patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, occurring against the background of autoimmune inflammation. Modern gastroenterology. 2019;(106):16-21. doi:10.30978/MG-2019-2-16. (in Ukrainian).