The content of calcium and vitamin D3 in patients with morbid obesity before and after surgical treatment depending on the type of surgery

Ya.S. Bereznitsky, R.V. Duka

Abstract


Background. Obesity is the global problem of mankind. Overweight and obesity are among the five major risk factors for death. In the modern world, the problem of obesity is also discussed in the context of noncommunicable diseases, leading to significant difficulties for society. All obese patients are at risk of vitamin D deficiency and the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism, especially patients with morbid obesity. The purpose was to analyze the dynamics of changes in the levels of vitamin 25(OH)D and calcium in patients with morbid obesity before and after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) in the modification of Hess-Marceau and sleeve gastrectomy. Materials and methods. Prospectively, 57 patients with morbid obesity and concomitant metabolic syndrome aged 21 to 62 years (mean age 40.00 ± 1.38 years) were examined, they underwent surgery and were monitored at the surgical department 1 of the Dnepropetrovsk Medical Academy of Ministry of Health of Ukraine for 3 or more years after the operation. The distribution of patients in groups was carried out taking into account the applied method of surgical treatment. Clinical group 1 included 29 (50.9 %) patients with BPD; group II — 28 (49.1 %) patients with sleeve gastrectomy. In all patients, the levels of calcium and vitamin 25(OH)D in the blood serum were determined. Evaluation of the study results was carried out in the dynamics of observation — at the first visit and within 3 years after surgery. Results. Analysis of the dynamics of morbid obesity after surgical treatment showed general trends to a significant (from p < 0.01 to p < 0.001) decrease in body mass index and body mass index (BMI) in patients of all clinical groups within 3 months after the start of treatment. In group 1, a significant decrease in indicators occurred within 18 months, and in group 2 — within 6–12 months. There was a decrease in the content of vitamin 25(OH)D and calcium at the beginning of the study, which required drug correction. In the course of the study, there was a tendency to decrease in the vitamin 25(OH)D content in patients of both groups within 12 months after bariatric intervention, with significant changes in the BPD group. In subsequent observation periods (after 1.5 and 2 years), such discrepancies from baseline in patients of both groups disappeared (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). A direct correlation was established between the levels of vitamin D and calcium and the length of a common loop during BPD: rs = +0.382 (p < 0.05) and rs = +0.378 (p < 0.05), respectively. At the same time, the length of the loop did not significantly affect the rate of weight loss after BPD (p > 0.05). Conclusions. The established direct correlation between the levels of vitamin D and calcium in the blood serum of patients who underwent BPD with the length of the common loop testified to the effectiveness of the BPD technique developed during the study (increasing the length of the common loop up to 1 m), the application of which led to a decrease in disturbances of the vitamin-calcium metabolism while maintaining the general tendency to a weight loss.

Keywords


morbid obesity; surgical treatment; biliopancreatic diversion; sleeve gastrectomy; calcium metabolism; vitamin D3 metabolism

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2308-2097.51.4.2017.119293

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