Topicality of identification of free fatty acids pattern in biologic substrates in the diagnosis of gastroenterological diseases

V.I. Didenko, I.A. Klenina, S.O. Babii, V.A. Karachynova

Abstract


The article shows the role of free fatty acids in the pathogenesis of metabolic and gastroenterological disorders. An expediency of gas chromatography method for determination of free fatty acids pattern in biologic samples (blood serum, urine, feces and other) was substantiated. The role of free fatty acids in the cell structure components formation, energetic homeostasis and signal molecules or their precursor production was shown. So, disorders of regulation of free fatty acids metabolism lead to systemic fails of insulin action, such as glucose metabolism in adipocytes, muscles and liver. Increase in several fractions of lipid pattern takes place in different pathologic states. These changes occur earlier than changes of enzymes activity or other protein markers. For example, short chain fatty acids can be used for identification of syndrome of bacterial overgrowth in the intestines. Increasе in polyunsaturated fatty acid fraction activates inflammation process, immune reactions, blood hypercoagulation, activation of lipid peroxidation. Also, arachidonic (C20:0), dodecanoic (C12:0) and linoleic (C18:3) acids are markers of inflammation processes. In addition, deficiency of free fatty acids is very important aspect of diagnois. It can’t be uncertified by standard laboratory methods. Proven fact is that essential fatty acids can be a cause of metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease formation such as other diseases associated with metabolism. So, only chromatography today is a method for determination fatty acid pattern. The advantages of gas chromatography are rapid realization and high accuracy. Thus, identification of trace concentrations (about 10–12 mole) is possible. Implementation of this method into the clinical practice of gastroenterology specialists allows the early diagnosis of pathologies and choice of correct treatment.

Keywords


gas chromatography; free fatty acids; short chain fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2308-2097.51.2.2017.101706

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